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Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Human faces a critical challenge in obtaining clean drinking water especially in developing and under developed countries. Challenges to obtain clean drinking water were from biological and chemical pollution at point and non point sources affecting the raw drinking water supply. Addressing these challenges will require an overview holistic system approach by addressing new issues and emerging pollutants in drinking water as well as embedded multiple exposures and assessments to be included in comprehensive environmental and human health risk assessment.
In ensuring adequate clean drinking water supply, solutions need to be focused on various technological innovations together with their interactions with drinking water standards and policy makers. Current special issue of Chemosphere focuses on the current state of knowledge on the links between drinking water quality, new issues, risks and solutions. This special issue will also cover different perspectives of drinking water studies including new issues related with drinking water exposure assessment, environmental and health risk.
Papers dealing with drinking water standards, policies and sustainable management are also welcome to be a part of this special issue. Original research papers, reviews and technical notes are invited to be included in this special issue. Submission of inter and multi-disciplinary research and review papers within the broad theme of drinking water is particularly encouraged. The first attempt to develop a WQI was in Germany in , when researchers found a correlation between pollution levels and certain communities of organisms fish, benthic organisms and plants. Therefore, the WQI are not recent, and have been widely used in various parts of the world to assess water quality Abbasi and Abbasi, At the present time, new indices have been developed and implemented in a range of countries and by using different parameters e.
Certainly these and other questions can only be answered by performing scientometric analyzes. The objective of this study was to investigate the scientific literature on WQI using scientometrics techniques to identify trends and biases. We used this term to search keywords, titles and abstracts.
The asterisk ensured that the terms were found no matter what suffix may have been used. For each paper, we obtained the following data, if possible: a the year of publication, b the country or region where the research was conducted, c the type of aquatic environment studied, d the publishing journal, e the type of water use studied, f the water quality evaluation method, and g the type of WQI used.
For type of aquatic environment [c], we classified the study sites as aquifer, groundwater, artesian well, river, dam or reservoir, lakes and floodplains. Coastal lakes were also considered lakes. For type of water use [e], the uses were classified as water for extraction and public supply, reused water, water for agriculture irrigation , water for fish or seafood farming, and Wastewater Treatment Plants WTP and Water Treatment Stations WTS.
To investigate how research on WQI was distributed across countries, we generated multiple regression models. The response variable was the number of papers by country, and the explanatory variables were the percentage of sanitation in the country, percentage of public supply, Human Development Index HDI and Gross Domestic Product GDP. We generated fifteen models using these four variables.
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To reduce the influence of extreme values, the variables were transformed: the data for sanitation and HDI were transformed using the square root of the arccosine, while the GDP and water supply data were logarithmically transformed. The paper proposes a new index for the Nashville River, Tennessee. The Indian Journal of Environmental Protection published the most 45 papers , followed by Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 35 papers.
In relation to type of water use were classified papers , water supply to the public was the subject of We generated 15 models to explain the number of publication by study site, i. Sanitation was important in explaining the scientific production with negative angular coefficient.
In the others words, the countries that have published more papers are those with a lower percentage of sanitation. Other scientometric studies have been developed on different subjects, which reinforces the importance of this technique to describe the scientific literature. Our WQI scientometric study highlighted the strong temporal increase in the number of papers. The issue of water quality has gained increasing research interest globally.
The generalized use of WQI without consider these variations may generate misinterpretation. Nevertheless, these indices have yet been widely accepted, mainly because it can quickly get an understanding of water quality, are easily understandable general public and decision makers, and provide a simplified output from complex multivariate data Abbasi and Abbasi, The journal with the most papers on this issue is the Indian Journal of Environmental Protection , and the high scientific production of this journal may be explained by the high production of articles on this topic in India.
Rural and isolated locations in India are beginning to face water scarcity, leading to a high dependence on groundwater for public and agricultural supply Magesh and Chandrasekar, Our results suggest that countries with low rates of sanitation and low water quality have more publications.
Water Pollution is Still with Us
These asymmetrical relations create the need for scientific research on water quality in this country, and similar scenarios may occur in countries such as China and India. New indices were established for studies of regional issues. This index has been widely applied in papers from several countries and was the basis for other indices, such as the Oregon WQI Swamee and Tyagi, Its parameters are highly independent and can be applied in diverse environments. Many studies of water use involve the public supply and agricultural supply.
Topic List: Water Quality - Water Education Foundation
The pressures exerted by the increasing demand for water lead to needs to manage water and establish limits for certain substances. Therefore, countries have gradually established legislation on water quality. These regulations have led to the need for constant monitoring of water use and a substantial amount of research. Intense agricultural production depends on irrigation and creates high water demands Kumar and Singh, Irrigation has been the solution for many areas that could not produce crops due to the use of an improper hydrological regime for large crops.
Through the use of irrigation, unproductive areas can efficiently produce crops every year Hanjra and Qureshi, The number of papers that characterize water quality for irrigation shows that proper management of water in agriculture is an area of interest for researchers. Rivers and lakes are the most studied environments, as these are the environments where freshwater is more accessible for population.
Large rivers that supply many regions such as the Nile River, which passes through ten countries, and the Amazon River, which passes through nine countries in South America Tundisi, , are of particular interest. Furthermore, many of these rivers are polluted due to anthropogenic activities Bhardwaj and Singh, The benefit that Texas realizes by attracting companies through low regulation comes at the expense of protecting its natural resources and the citizens who rely on them.
Assessment of water quality: a case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria)
This is particularly evident in how Texas handles water quality issues. The state, in its aim to accommodate and attract business, has constructed a lax water quality regulatory and enforcement environment through the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality TCEQ , the state agency charged with monitoring water quality and assessing penalties for violations through the Texas Water Code. Fortunately, both the federal and local government can play a role in protecting rivers in Texas through federal regulation and the Texas Water Code itself. As evidence, this paper presents the case of the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a pollution case that highlights the dangers posed by lax regulation of surface water quality.
One of the issues that the precautionary principal tries to address is the prevention of irretrievable damage that can be made to the environment. With regards to groundwater supply, the loss of any significant amount of water from aquifers can have devastating effects at many levels, especially when that loss is caused by pollution and contamination. Some contaminated groundwater can be remediated, but the remediation process may take a long time, depending on the nature of the contaminant. At worst, some groundwater has been found to be impossible to remediate due to cost, and end up being completely written off.
The focus of this paper is to examine if the intentional disregard of contaminated groundwater in Texas is good or bad for water policy planning and development. This report investigates the data-driven process behind the creation of a Regional Water Plan within Texas. Wastewater is on the cusp of a revolution in Texas, but there are crucial stumbling blocks that must be removed before it can succeed.
Wastewater has a long history of reuse, and its current preeminence is driven by both external and internal pressures. The obstacles to broader wastewater adoption include systemic water ownership issues in the Texas legal system and resulting regulatory hurdles. This paper gives the history of wastewater reuse in Texas, explores the drivers for increased reuse, and provides solutions to promote reuse projects.
Water markets are increasingly recommended to efficiently allocate scarce water resources among all users.
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Water marketing is not a new concept for Texas, and there is plentiful analysis of the benefits and barriers to successful water marketing. Now is the prime time to use water marketing as a groundwater management tool in light of emerging tensions about allocation.